بررسی منشأ پرتوزایی گامای طبیعی ناشی از 238U، 232Th و 40K در معدن فیروزه نیشابور و آثار زیست محیطی آن

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زمین شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 گروه پژوهشی اکتشاف ذخایر معدنی شرق ایران، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

معدن فیروزه نیشابور در استان خراسان رضوی و 55 کیلومتری شمال‌غرب نیشابور قرار دارد. این معدن به عنوان کانسار بزرگ مس- طلای همراه با اکسیدهای آهن از نوع مس- طلا- اورانیوم-عناصر نادر خاکی معرفی‌شده­­ است. تشکیل فیروزه مربوط به زون سوپرژن معدن بوده و تا عمق حدود 80 متری مشاهده‌ شده ­است. واحدهای سنگی منطقه شامل سنگ ­های آتشفشانی و نفوذی حدواسط است که تحت دگرسانی قرار گرفته ­اند. ارزیابی‌های زمین‌شیمیایی، وجود عناصر پرتوزا را در منطقه نشان‌داده است. برای تعیین منشأ و مخاطرات زیست­ محیطی مربوطه، پرتوزایی گاما و آلفای حاصل از 238U ،232Th و  40K در 69 نقطه معدن و نواحی مجاور آن تعیین‌شد. بیشترین پرتوزایی گامای مرتبط با عناصر 238U ،232Th و  40K در انتهای تونل اصلی و منطبق بر واحد سنگی تراکیت است. بیشترین پرتوزایی گاما به ترتیب در تونل ­های معدن، منازل مسکونی، باطله ­های معدنی، تشکیلات زمین‌شناسی و منابع آبی اندازه ­گیری شد. بالاترین پرتوزایی گاما در منطقه مورد بررسی از پتاسیم  (40K) نشأت‌گرفته است. سنگ ­های تراکیتی، بالاترین پرتوزایی طبیعی گامای کل را دارند و به عنوان منشأ اصلی پرتوزایی منطقه معرفی می­ شوند. بیماری‌های پنوموکونیوزیس و سیلیکوسیس در معدن‌کاران قدیمی گزارش‌شده ­است. در بین افراد بازنشسته سرطان­ های دستگاه گوارش و ریه فراوانی بیشتری دارد.

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