زمین شناسی، دگرسانی، کانی سازی، زمین شیمی، بررسی سیالات درگیر، پتروژنز و سن‌ سنجی دایک های دیوریتی محدوده مس رباعی (جنوب دامغان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زمین شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

محدوده اکتشافی مس رباعی در کمربند ترود-چاه شیرین در فاصله 95 کیلومتری جنوب دامغان واقع‌شده است. سنگ­‌شناسی منطقه از واحدهای آتشفشانی ائوسن با ترکیب آندزیت و تراکی­‌آندزبت تشکیل‌شده که دایک­‌هایی با ترکیب دیوریتی در این واحدها نفوذ کرده است. زون­‌های دگرسانی رخنمون‌یافته در این منطقه شامل پروپیلیتیک، سریسیتی، آرژیلیک و کربناتی­‌شدن است. کانی­‌سازی به‌صورت رگه‌­ای با شیب بین 60 تا 80 درجه با روند شمال‌شرقی- جنوب‌غربی و عرض 1 تا 5 متر در امتداد شکستگی­‌ها و گسل­‌ها رخ‌داده است. کانی‌­های اولیه شامل کالکوپیریت، بورنیت و پیریت و کانی­‌های ثانویه شامل کالکوسیت، کوولیت، مالاکیت، آزوریت، گوتیت، لیمونیت و هماتیت است. مقدار مس بین 01/0 تا 6/5 درصد متغیر است و همچنین مقدار عناصر سرب، روی، نقره و طلا در منطقه، پایین است. دایک‌­های دیوریتی منطقه غنی­‌شدگی در عناصر لیتوفیل بزرگ یون و عناصر نادر خاکی سبک، و تهی­‌شدگی در عناصر نادر خاکی سنگین و عناصر با شدت میدان بالا نشان می‌­دهند.
مقدار 87Sr/86Sr، 143Nd/144Nd اولیه و ایزوتوپ­‌های اولیه εNdi بیوتیت-هورنبلند دیوریت پورفیری به‌ترتیب برابر با 705664/0،  518426/0 و 7/1- است. همه این شواهد با تشکیل‌شدن دایک‌­های دیوریتی محدوده اکتشافی مس رباعی از گوشته اولیه با ذوب‌بخشی گوه گوشته­‌ای در بالای زون فرورانش همسو است. بر اساس داده­‌های U-Pb بر روی کانی زیرکن، سن دایک‌­ها برابر با 49/0±49/50 میلیون سال مربوط به اشکوب ایپرزین (ائوسن زیرین) است. دماسنجی بر روی سیالات درگیر اولیه موجود در کانی کلسیت مرتبط با کانی‌سازی، بیانگر تشکیل این نوع کانی‌­سازی در دمای حدود 165 تا 300 درجه سانتی­‌گراد از سیالی با شوری متوسط (7 تا16  درصد وزنی معادل نمک طعام) است. مخلوط‌‌شدن سیال­‌ها با شوری­ متفاوت و در نتیجه کاهش شوری مهم‌ترین عامل در ته‌نشست مس در منطقه است. شواهد سنگ‌­شناسی، دگرسانی، شکل و حالت کانی­‌سازی، کنترل ساختاری، سیالات درگیر و ناهنجاری‌­های زمین­‌شیمیایی نشان می‌دهد که کانی­‌سازی مس رگه­‌ای محدوده اکتشافی رباعی از نوع اپی­ترمال است.

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