بررسی سنگ شناسی و جایگاه زمین‌ساختی کانسار مس پورفیری سرچشمه، با تأکید بر گرانودیوریت و کوارتز چشمی پورفیری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زمین‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، کدپستی 33391-65174، ایران

2 گروه زمین شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

3 مجتمع معدنی مس سرچشمه، شرکت ملی صنایع مس ایران، رفسنجان، ایران

چکیده

کانسار مس پورفیری سرچشمه در بخش جنوب‌شرقی کمربند ارومیه-دختر و در کمربند دهج-ساردوئیه واقع‌شده است. این کمربند با روند شمال­‌غربی-جنوب­‌شرقی در استان کرمان واقع‌شده و بیشترین حجم ماگماتیسم و نیز کانی­‌سازی پورفیری را به خود اختصاص داده است. رخنمون­‌های سنگی در محدوده­ معدن شامل استوک گرانودیوریتی سرچشمه و پورفیری دانه‌­ریز تأخیری، توده‌­های نفوذی گرانودیوریتی و کوارتز چشمی پورفیری، ولکانیت­‎ها یا سنگ میزبان آندزیتی و دایک­‌های هورنبلند پورفیری، بیوتیت پورفیری و فلدسپـار پورفیری با ترکیب دیوریتی است. همچنین توده‌­های نفوذی گرانودیوریتی و کوارتز چشمی پورفیری پیش از توده‌­های نفوذی کانی­‌ساز (از جمله سرچشمه پورفیری و پورفیری دانه­‌ریز تأخیری) تزریق شده­‌اند. بر اساس بررسی‌های سنگ‌­شناسی و ژئوشیمیایی، توده‌­های نفوذی گرانودیوریتی و کوارتز چشمی پورفیری در محدوده­ سنگ­‌های گرانودیوریتــی حاصل از یک ماگمـــای کالک‌­آلکالن قرار می­‌گیرند و لذا توده­‌های نفوذی مورد بررسی از نوع پرآلومینوس و پتاسیم بالا هستند. غنی‌­شدگی عناصر LREE نسبت به HREE و عناصر LILE نسبت به HFSE‌، تشکیل ماگما را در پهنه­ فرورانشی تأیید می­‌کند؛ همچنین نسبت­‌های عناصر نادر خاکــی و کمیاب (از جمله: Ba/Nb، Ba/Ta، Sr/Y و ...) بیانگر آن است که این توده‌­های نفوذی در یک پهنه­ فرورانشی و از یک کمان ماگمایی غنی‌شده حاصل شده‌­اند که این غنی­‌شدگی می‌­تواند ناشی از متاسوماتیسم شدید منبع گوشته‌­ای با میزان پایین ذوب‌بخشی محل منشأ و آلودگی ماگما با مواد پوسته‌­ای و همچنین ماگماهای کالک‌­آلکالن حاصل از میزان زیاد ذوب‌بخشی یا حاصل ذوب‌بخشی پوسته اقیانوسی نئوتتیس باشد. محیط زمین‌ساختی کانسار سرچشمه و توده‌­های مورد بررسی، بیانگر یک محیط پس از بــرخوردی است که کانی­‌سازی در آن صورت‌گرفته است.

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