زمین شیمی و پتروژنز توده گرانیتوئیدی و اسکارن آهن علم‌ کندی (باختر ماه نشان، استان زنجان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زمین‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

کانسار آهن علم ­کندی در 35 کیلومتری باختر ماه­ نشان واقع‌شده و بخشی از زیرپهنه تکاب- تخت‌سلیمان در مجاورت با کمان ماگمایی ارومیه- دختر است. در این منطقه، واحدهای سنگی شامل تناوب آمفیبولیت، آمفیبول شیست و بیوتیت شیست با میان­ لایه­ هایی از مرمر مربوط به پالئوزوئیک توسط توده گرانیتوئیدی علم ­کندی به سن الیگوسن بالایی مورد هجوم قرار‌گرفته و هاله دگرگونی مجاورتی و کانه­ زایی آهن در آنها تشکیل‌ شده ‌است. توده گرانیتوئیدی شامل گرانودیوریت، کوارتز دیوریت و دیوریت پورفیری بوده و دارای ماهیت کالک­ آلکالن تا کالک­ آلکالن پتاسیم‌بالا و متعلق به گرانیتوئیدهای متاآلومینوس نوع I است. این توده مربوط به محیط حاشیه فعال قاره ­ای است. هاله دگرگونی مجاورتی متشکل از زیرپهنه ­های گارنت اسکارن، پیروکسن اسکارن، اپیدوت-پیروکسن اسکارن، سرپانتین اسکارن و اسکارن کانه ­دار است. مگنتیت کانی اصلی کانسار با کانی ­های پیریت و کالکوپیریت همراهی می­ شود. شواهد بافتی سنگ­ های دگرگونی مجاورتی نشان‌دهنده تشکیل هم ­زمان الیوین، گارنت و کلینوپیروکسن در محدوده دمایی 430 تا 550 درجه سانتی‌ گراد و 22-10- 18-10 ƒO2=است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Alavi, M., 1994. Tectonics of the zagros orogenic belt of Iran: new data and interpretations. Tectonophysics, 229(3–4): 211–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(94)90030-2
Andarz, F., 2006. Investigation of mineralogy and controlling factors of iron skarn mineralization of magnesium type in the mineralized region of Arjin, east of Zanjan. (Zanjan province). Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Science Research Branch, Tehran, Iran, 156 pp.
Babakhani, A.R. and Ghalamgash, J., 1996. Geological map of Takht-e-Soleiman, scale 1:100000. Geological Survey of Iran.
Bakhshizad, F. and Ghorbani, Gh., 2015. Geochemistry, geochronology and tectonic setting of metamorphic rocks from Zanjan-Takab region. Scientific Quarterly Journal, Geosciences, 25(97): 361–374. (in Persian with English abstract) http://dx.doi.org/10.22071/gsj.2015.41537
Besharati, S., Nabatian, Gh. and Sadeghi, A, 2010. Skarn mineralization in the Arjin region (Southwest Soltanieh). The 1th conference of the Iranian Economic Geological Society, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. (in Persian with English abstract) Retrieved September 12, 2010 from https://www.en.symposia.ir/CISEG01
Bucher, K. and Frey, M., 1994. Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks. Berlin Heidelburg and New York, Springer-Verlag, 318 pp.
Chappell, B.W. and White, A.J.R., 2001. Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(4): 489–499. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-0952.2001.00882.x
Einaudi, M.T., 1982. General features and origin of skarns associated with porphyry copper plutons. In: S.R., Titley (Editor), Advances in geology of the porphyry copper deposits, south-western North America. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 185–209. Retrieved April 20, 2020 from http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc.xsd
Einaudi, M.T. and Burt, D.M., 1982. Introduction, terminology, classification and composition of skarn deposits. Economic Geology, 7(4): 745–754. https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.77.4.745
Einaudi, M.T., Meinert, L.D. and Newberry, R.J., 1981. Skarn deposits. In: B.J. Skinner (Editor), Economic Geology. 75th Anniversary, The Economic Geology Publishing Company, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, pp. 317–391. https://doi.org/10.5382/AV75.11
Fakhr Shafaie, E., 2016.  Petrology and geochemistry of Khakriz granitoid (S Zanjan) and its contact metamorphic aureole. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis. University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran, 97 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Hamidvand, M, 2016. Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of Incheh Rahbari Fe deposit, south Zanjan. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis. University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran, 127 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Hastie, A.R., Ker, A.C., Pearce, J.A. and Mitchell, S.F., 2007. Classification of altered volcanic island arc rocks using immobile trace elements: Development of the Th–Co discrimination diagram. Journal of Petrology, 48(12): 2341–2357.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egm062
Hofmann, A.W., 1988. Chemical differentiation of the earth: the relationship between mantle, continental crust, and oceanic crust. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 90(13): 297–314. https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(88)90132-X
Hosseini, F., Hemati Ahouie, H.R. and Karimi, Gh., 2017. Evaluation of intelligent estimator performance in 3D modelling of Shahrak Fe deposit (Bijar). Journal of Mineral Resources Engineering, 2(3): 15–23. (in Persian)  Retrieved December 20, 2017 from https://jmre.journals.ikiu.ac.ir/issue_199_227.html
Irvine, T.N. and Baragar, W.R.A., 1971. A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 8(5): 523–548. https://doi.org/10.1139/e71-055
Kuster, D. and Harms, U., 1998. Post-collisional potassic granitoids form the southern and northwestern parts of the Late Neoproterozoic East African Orogen: a review. Lithos, 45(1–4): 177–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2016.11.026
Maanijou, M. and Khodaie, L., 2018. Mineralogy and electron microprobe studies of magnetite in the Sarab-3 iron Ore deposit, southwest of the Shahrak mining region (East Takab). Journal of Economic Geology, 10(1): 267–293. (in Persian with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.22067/econg.v10i1.56522
Maanijou, M. and Salemi, R., 2014. Mineralogy, chemistry of magnetite and genesis of Korkora-1 iron deposit, east of Takab, NW Iran. Journal of Economic Geology, 6(2): 355–374. (in Persian with extended English abstract) https://doi.org/10.22067/econg.v6i2.22650
McDonough, W.F., Sun, S.S., 1995. The composition of the Earth. Chemical Geology, 120(3–4): 223–253 https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(94)00140-4
Meinert, L.D., 1992. Skarns and skarn deposits. Geoscience Canada, 19(4): 145–162. https://doi.org/10.12789/gs.v19i4.3773
Meinert, L.D., Dipple, G., and Nicolescu, S., 2005. World skarn deposits. In: J.W. Hedenquist, F.H. Thompson, R.J., Goldfarb, and J.P. Richard (Editors), Economic Geology, 100th Anniversary, The Economic Geology Publishing Company, Littleton, Colorado, pp. 317–391. https://doi.org/10.5382/AV100.11
Middlemost, E.A.K., 1994. Naming materials in the magma and igneous rock system. Earth-Science Reveiws, 37(3–4): 215–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-8252(94)90029-9
Moghaddasi, S.J., Ebrahimi, M. and Mohammadi, F., 2019. Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of Gozaldarreh iron deposit, southeast Zanjan. Journal of Economic Geology, 11(1): 33–55. (in Persian with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.22067/econg.v11i1.60810
Mohammad Beigi, N., 2017. Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of Qavaq Fe deposit, SW of Dandi (Zanjan). Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran, 131 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Mokhtari, M.A.A., Kouhestani, H., and Gholizadeh, K., 2019. Mineral chemistry and formation conditions of calc-silicate minerals of Qozlou Fe skarn deposit, Zanjan Province, NW Iran. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 12(658): 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-019-4814-1  
Müller, D. and Groves, D.I., 1997. Potassic igneuos rocks and associated gold-copper mineralization. Springer-Verlag, Switzerland, 242 pp. Retrieved April 20, 2020 from https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783642640759
Nabatian, Gh., Li, X.H., Honarmand, M. and Melgarejo, J.C., 2017. Geology, mineralogy and evolution of iron skarn deposits in the Zanjan district, NW Iran: Constraints from U-Pb dating, Hf and O isotope analyses of zircons and stable isotope geochemistry. Ore Geology Reviews, 84(8): 42–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.10.029
Pearce, J.A., Haris, N.B.W. and Tindle. A.G., 1984. Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of rocks. Journal of Petrology, 25(4): 956–125. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/25.4.956
Perkins, E.H., Brown, T.H. and Berman, R.G., 1986. PTX-SYSTEM: Three programs for calculation of pressure- temperature- composition phase diagrams. Computers and Geosciences, 12(6): 749–755. https://doi.org/10.1016/0098-3004(86)90028-2
Rafiee, A., 2008. Exploration report of the Alamkandi Fe deposit. Ministry of Industry, Mine and Trade, Zanjan Province, Zanjan, 132 pp. (in Persian)
Ramezani, J. and Tucker, R.D., 2003. The Saghand region, central Iran: U-Pb geochronology, petrogenesis and implications for Gondwana tectonics. American Journal of Science, 303(7): 622–665. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.303.7.622
Rollinson, H.G., 1993. Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation and interpretation. Longman Group UK Limited, London, 352 pp. Retrieved April 20, 2020 from https://www.routledge.com/Using-Geochemical-Data-Evaluation-Presentation-Interpretation/Rollinson/p/book/9780582067011
Schandl, E.S. and Gorton, M.P., 2002. Application of high field strength elements to discriminate tectonic settings in VMS environments. Economic Geology, 97(3): 629–642.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.97.3.629
Shafaiepour, N., Mokhtari, M.A.A., Kouhestani, H. and Honarmand, M., 2020. Petrology and geochemistry of the Qozlou granitoid and related Fe skarn (west Zanjan). Journal of Economic Geology, 12(1): 47-76. (In Persian with extended English abstract) https://doi.org/10.22067/econg.v12i1.70568
Shahbazi, S., Ghaderi, M. and Rashidnejhad Omran, N., 2015. Mineralization stages and iron source of Bashkand deposit based on mineralogy, structure, texture and geochemical evidence, southwest of Soltanieh. Scientific Quarterly Journal, Geosciences, 24(95): 355–372. (in Persian with English abstract) http://dx.doi.org/10.22071/gsj.2015.42471
Shand, S.J., 1943. Eruptive rocks: Their genesis, composition, classification, and their relation to ore-deposits with a chapter on meteorite. Nature 120: 872. https://doi.org/10.1038/120872a0
Sheikhi, R., 2005. Economic geology study of Shahrak Fe deposit, east of Takab. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, 161 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Villaseca, C., Barbero, L. and Rogers, G., 1998. Crustal origin of Hercynian peraluminous granitic batholiths of central Spain: Petrological, geochemical and isotopic (Sr, Nd) constraints. Lithos, 43(2): 55–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-4937(98)00002-4
Whitney, D.L. and Evans, B.W., 2010. Abbreviations for names of rock-forming minerals. American Mineralogist, 95(1): 185–187. https://doi.org/10.2138/am.2010.3371
Wilson, M., 1989. Igneous petrology. Springer, Netherlands, 466 pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-9388-0
Wright, J.B. and McCurry, P., 1997. Geochemistry of calc-alkaline volcanic in northwestern Nigeria, and a possible Pan-African suture zone. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 37(1): 90–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(77)90149-2