Adamia, S.A., Chkhotua, T., Kekelia, M., Lordkipanidze, M., Shavishvili, I. and Zakariadze, G., 1981. Tectonics of the Caucasus and adjoining regions: Implications for the evolution of the Tethys Ocean. Journal of Structural Geology, 3(4): 437–447.
Aghanabati, A., 2004. Geology of Iran. Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, 606 pp. (in Persian)
Aghazadeh, M., Hou, Z., Badrzadeh, Z. and Zhou, L., 2015. Temporal–spatial distribution and tectonic setting of porphyry copper deposits in Iran: Constraints from zircon U–Pb and molybdenite Re–Os geochronology. Ore Geology Reviews, 70: 385–406.
Ahmad, S.N. and Rose, A.W., 1980. Fluid inclusions in porphyry and skarn ore at Santa Rita, New Mexico. Economic Geology, 75(2): 229–250.
Akbarpour, A., 2005. Economic geology studies of Kiamaki region with special reference to copper and gold mineralization in Masjed-Daghi area, Jolfa, Eastern Azerbaijan province, Iran. Ph.D. Thesis, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, 241 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Alavi, M., 1991. Tectonic map of the Middle East. Geological Survey of Iran. Tehran.
Alderton, D.M.H., Pearce, J.A. and Potts, P.J., 1980. Rare earth element mobility during granite alteration: evidence from southwest England. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 49(1): 149–165.
Amini Fazl, A., 1994. Petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of Qaradagh intrusive body (Ordubad granite) at NW Iran (Ghoolan, Doozal, Astamal). Ph.D. Thesis, Azerbaijan Republic Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, 258 pp.
Baghban, S., Hosseinzadeh, M.R., Moayyed, M., Mokhtari, M.A.A. and Gregory, D., 2015. Geology, mineral chemistry and formation conditions of calc-silicate minerals of Astamal Fe-LREE distal skarn deposit, Eastern Azarbaijan Province, NW Iran. Ore Geology Reviews, 68: 79–96.
Baghban, S., Hosseinzadeh, M.R., Moayyed, M., Mokhtari, M.A.A., Gregory, D. and Mahmoudi Nia, H., 2016. Chemical composition and evolution of the garnets in the Astamal Fe-LREE distal skarn deposit, Qara-Dagh–Sabalan metallogenic belt, Lesser Caucasus, NW Iran. Ore Geology Reviews, 78: 166–175.
Baniadam, F., 2003. Geology and genesis of gold-copper mineralization in Nabijan area. M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Geoscience, Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, Iran. 167 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Bienvenu, P., Bougault, H., Joron, J.L., Treuil, M. and Dmitriev, L., 1990. MORB alteration: Rare-earth element/non-rare-earth hygromagmaphile element fractionation. Chemical Geology, 82: 1–14.
Bodnar, R.J., 2003. Introduction to aqueous-electrolyte fluid inclusions. In: I. Samson, A. Anderson and D. Marshal (Editors), Fluid inclusions: Analysis and interpretation. Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course 32, Quebec, pp. 81–100.
Bodnar, R.J., Sterner, S.M. and Hall, D.L., 1989. SALTY: A FORTRAN program to calculate compositions of fluid inclusions in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O. Computers & Geosciences, 15(1): 19–41.
Bodnar, R.J. and Vityk, M.O., 1994. Interpretation of microthermometric data for H20-NaCl fluid inclusions. In: B. De Vivo and M.L. Frezzotti (Editors), Fluid inclusions in methods and applications. Short Cours of the Working Group, Siena, pp. 117–130.
Brunsmann, A., Franz, G. and Erzinger, J., 2001. REE mobilization during small-scale high-pressure fluid-rock interaction and zoisite/fluid partitioning of La to Eu. Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65(4): 559–570.
Calagari, A.A., 1997. Geochemical, stable isotope, noble gas and fluid inclusion studies of mineralization and alteration at Sungun porphyry copper deposit, East Azarbaidjan, Iran: Implication for genesis. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Manchester, Manchester, England, 537 pp.
Calagari, A.A., 2004. Fluid inclusion studies in quartz veinlets in the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, East-Azarbaidjan, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 23(2): 179–189.
Calagari, A.A. and Hosseinzadeh, M.R., 2006. The mineralogy of copper-bearing skarn to the east of the Sungun-Chay River, East-Azarbaidjan, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 28(4-6): 423–438.
Debon, F. and Le Fort, P., 1983. A chemical–mineralogical classification of common plutonic rocks and associations. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences, 73(3): 135–149.
Diamond, L.W., 2003. Glossary: Terms and symbols used in fluid inclusion studies. In: I. Samson, A. Anderson and D. Marshal (Editors), Fluid inclusions: Analysis and interpretation. Mineralogical Association of Canada, short course series 32, Canada, pp. 363–372.
Dokuz, A., Tanyolu, E. and Genc, S., 2005. A mantle and a lower crust derived bimodal suite in the Yusufeli Artvin area, NE Turkey: Trace element and REE evidence for subduction–related rift origin of early Jurasic Demirkent intrusive complex. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 95(3): 370–394.
Dong, G., Morrison, G. and Jaireth, S., 1995. Quartz textures in epithermal veins, Queensland; classification, origin and implication. Economic Geology, 90(6): 1841–1856.
Ebrahimi, M., Kouhestani, H. and Shahidi, E., 2015. Investigation on type and origin of iron mineralization at Mesgar occurrence, south of Zanjan, using petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data. Journal of Economic Geology, 7(1): 111–127. (in Persian with extended English abstract)
Ebrahimi, S., Alirezaei, S. and Pan, Y., 2011. Geological setting, alteration, and fluid inclusion characteristics of Zaglic and Safikhanloo epithermal gold prospects, NW Iran. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 350, London, pp. 133–147.
Fard, M., Aliakbari, H. and Mohammadi, B., 2005. Geology and drilling reposrt of Masjed-Daghi, Siahrood-Jolfa area (scale 1:1000), Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, Report 125, 136 pp.
Feizi, M., Ebrahimi, M., Kouhestani, H. and Mokhtari, M.A.A., 2016. Geology, mineralization and geochemistry of Aqkand Cu occurrence (north of Zanjan, Tarom-Hashtjin zone). Journal of Economic Geology, 8(2): 505–524. (in Persian with extended English abstract)
Ferdosi, R., Calagari, A.A., Hosseinzadeh, M.R. and Siahcheshm, K., 2014. Investigation of petrography, mineralography, and mineralization of gold-bearing epithermal veins in Astarghan area, Kharvana, East Azarbaidjan. 32th national and 1th international Geosciences Congress. Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, Iran. (in Persian with English abstract)
Ferdosi, R., Calagari, A.A., Hosseinzadeh, M.R. and Siahcheshm, K., 2016. Petrography, geochemistry and mineral chemistry of Astergan porphyritic stock, Kharvana, Eastern Azarbaijan. Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy, 23(4): 759–774. (in Persian with English abstract)
Fournier, R.O., 1987. Conceptual models of brine evolution in magmatic–hydrothermal systems. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1350, pp. 1487–1506.
Gao, Y., Ye, H., Mao, J. and Li, Y., 2013. Geology, geochemistry and genesis of the Qianfanling quartz-vein Mo deposit in Songxian County, Western Henan Province, China. Ore Geology Reviews, 55: 13–28.
Ghadimzadeh, H., 2002. Economic geology and Au exploration at Safikhanlou-Noghdouz area (SE Ahar). M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Earth Science, Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, Iran, 232 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Gholami Checheki, S., 2001. Geology and controlling factors of Au mineralization at Mivehrood deposit, Kharvana area (East Azarbayjan). M.Sc. Thesis, North Tehran branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, 310 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Giere, R. and Williams, C.T., 1992. REE-bearing minerals in a Ti-rich vein from the Adamello contact aureole (Italy). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 112(1): 83–100.
Goldfarb, R., Hart, C., Miller, M., Miller, L., Framer, G.L. and Groves, D., 2000. The Tintina gold belt: a global prospective. In: T.L. Tucker and Smith M.T. (Editors), The Tintina gold belt: concepts, exploration and discoveries. British Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines, Special volume 2, Vancouver, pp. 5–34.
Gramaccioli, C.M., Diella, V. and Demartin, F., 1999. The role of fluoride complexes in REE geochemistry and the importance of 4f electrons: some complexes in minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy, 11(6): 983–992.
Hall, D.L., Cohen, L.H. and Schiffman, P., 1988. Hydrothermal alteration associated with the iron skarn deposit, Eastern Mojave Desert, San Bernardino County, California. Economic Geology, 83(3): 568–587.
Hart, C.J.R., Baker, T. and Burke, M., 2000. New exploration concepts for country rock- hosted, intrusion- related gold systems: Tintina gold belt, in Yukon. In: T.L. Tucker and Smith M.T. (Editors), The Tintina gold belt: concept, exploration and discoveries. British Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines, Special volume 2, Vancouver, pp. 145–172.
Hassanpour, Sh., Rasa, I., Heydari, M., Motakan, A.A. and Moayyed, M., 2011. Geology, alteration, and mineralization in Haft-Cheshmeh copper-molybdenum porphyry deposit. Iranian Journal of Geology, 4(15): 15–28. (in Persian with English abstract)
Heydarzadeh, R., 2007. Mineralization, alteration, and genesis of gold mineralization in Zaglik-Sarilar area. M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Earth Science, Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, Iran, 223 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Hezarkhani, A. and Williams-Jones, A.E., 1998. Controls of alteration and mineralization in the Sungun porphyry copper deposit, Iran: Evidence from fluid inclusions and stable isotopes. Economic Geology, 93(5): 651–670.
Hosseinzadeh, M.R., 2008. Geology, geochemistry, fluid inclusion, alteration, and genesis of Saunajil porphyry copper deposits, East of Heris, Eastern Azerbaijan province, Iran. Ph.D. Thesis, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran, 230 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Humphris, S.E., 1984. The mobility of the rare earth elements in the crust. In: P. Henderson (Editor), Rare earth element geochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 317–342.
Imani, F., 2013. Investigation of copper mineralization related with quartz veins at Javan-Sheikh village, Ahar. M.Sc. Thesis, Tabriz Payam Noor Univercity, Tabriz, Iran, 212 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Ineson, P.R., 1989. Introduction to practical ore microscopy. Longman Scientific and Technical, London, 181 pp.
Jamali, H., 1999. Geology, geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of Mivehrud Au-Cu mineralization, Eastern Azerbaijan Province. M.Sc. Thesis, Tarbiat Moallem University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 172 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Jamali, H., Dilek, Y., Daliran, F., Yaghubpour, A.M. and Mehrabi, B., 2010. Metallogeny and tectonic evolution of the Cenozoic Ahar-Arasbaran volcanic belt, northern Iran. International Geology Review, 52(4–6): 608–630.
Jamali, H. and Mehrabi, B., 2015. Relationships between arc maturity and Cu-Mo-Au porphyry and related epithermal mineralization at the Cenozoic Arasbaran Magmatic Belt. Ore Geology Reviews, 65(2): 487–501.
Jamali, H., Yaghubpour, A., Mehrabi, B., Dilek, Y., Daliran, F. and Meshkani, S.A., 2012. Petrogenesis and tectono-magmatic setting of Meso-Cenozoic magmatism in Azerbaijan province, Northwestern Iran. In: A.I. Al-Juboury (Editor), Petrology, New Perspectives and Applications. INTECH, Croatia, pp. 39–56.
Karimzadeh Somarin, A. and Moayyed, M., 2002. Granite and gabbrodiorite associated skarn deposits of NW Iran. Ore Geology Reviews, 20(3–4): 127–138.
Kikawada, Y., Ossaka. T., Oi, T. and Honda, T., 2001. Experimental studies on the mobility of lanthanides accompanying alteration of andesite by acidic hot spring water. Chemical Geology, 176(1–4): 137–149.
Konstantinov, M.M., Kryazhev, S.G. and Ustinov, V.I., 2010. Characteristics of the ore-forming system of the zod gold-tellurium deposit (Armenia) according to isotopic data. Geochemistry International, 48(9): 946–949.
Kouhestani, H., Ghaderi, M., Zaw, K., Meffre, S. and Emami, M.H., 2012. Geological setting and timing of the Chah Zard breccia-hosted epithermal gold-silver deposit in the Tethyan belt of Iran. Mineralium Deposita, 47(4): 425–440.
Kozerenko, S.V., 2004. Hydrothermal system of the Zod gold sulfide deposit, Armenia: ore sources and formation conditions. Geochemistry International, 42(2): 188–190.
Lang, J.R. and Baker, T., 2001. Intrusion-related gold system. The present level of understanding. Mineralium Deposita, Professional edition, Shapman and Hall, London, 318 pp.
Lang, J.R., Baker, T., Hart, C.J.R. and Mortensen, J.K., 2000. An exploration model for intrusion- related gold systems. Society of Economic Geologist Newsletters, 40: 5–15
Li, N., Chen, Y.J., Pirajno, F. and Ni, Z., 2013. Timing of the Yuchiling giant porphyry Mo system, and implications for ore genesis. Mineralium Deposita, 48 (4): 505–524.
Lottermoser, B.G., 1992. Rare earth elements and hydrothermal ore formation processes. Ore Geology Reviews, 7(1): 25–41.
Mederer, J., Moritz, R., Zohrabyan, S., Vardanyan, A., Melkonyan, R. and Ulianov, A., 2014. Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus: A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana districts. Ore Geology Reviews, 58: 185–207.
Mehrpartou, M., 1993. Contributions to the geology, geochemistry, ore genesis and fluid inclusion investigations on Sungun Cu-Mo porphyry deposit, northwest of Iran. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 245 pp.
Mehrpartou, M., Mirzaei, M. and Alaei, S., 1997. Geologic map of Siahrood, scale 1:100 000. Geological Survey of Iran.
Mohammadi, B., 2004. A brief report of exploration of porphyry Au-Cu-Mo in Masjed-Daghi area. Geological Survey of Iran. Tehran, Report 126, 26 pp. (in Persian)
Mokhtari, M.A.A., 2008. Petrology, geochemistry, and petrogenesis of Qara-Dagh batholith (east of Siahrood, Eastern Azerbeijan) and associated skarn deposits with considering on mineralization. Ph.D. Thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, 303 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Mokhtari, M.A.A., 2012. The mineralogy and petrology of Pahnavar Fe skarn in the Eastern Azarbaijan, NW Iran. Open Geosciences, 4(4): 578–591.
Mokhtari, M.A.A., Ebrahimi, M. and Ghorbani, M.R., 2016. The mineralogy and skarnification processes at the Avan Cu–Fe Skarn, northeast of Kharvana, NW Iran. Journal of Economic Geology, 8(2): 359–380. (in Persian with extended English abstract)
Mokhtari, M.A.A., Moein-Vaziri, H., Gorbani M.R. and Mehrpartou, M., 2013. Geology and geochemistry of Aniq-Qarachilar Au-Cu-Mo mineralization (NE of Kharvana, Eastern Azarbaijan). Scientific Quarterly Journal, Geosciences, 23(90): 135–150. (in Persian with English abstract)
Mokhtari, M.A.A. and Yarmohamadi, A., 2008. Prospecting report for polymetal resource at Aniq-Qarachilar (northeast of Kharvana). Geological Survey of Iran. Tehran, Report 244, 187 pp. (in Persian)
Mollai, H., 1993. Petrochemistry and genesis of the granodiorite and associated iron–copper skarn deposit of Mazraeh, Ahar, East Azerbaijan, Iran. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rookee, India, 287 pp.
Mollai, H., Pe-Piper, G. and Dabiri, R., 2014. Genetic relationships between skarn ore deposits and magmatic activity in the Ahar region, Western Alborz, NW Iran. Geologica Carpathica, 65(3): 207–225.
Moritz, R., Rezeau, H., Ovtcharova, M., Tayan, R., Melkonyan, R., Hovakimyan, S., Ramazanov, V., Selby, D., Ulianov, A., Chiaradia, M. and Putlitz, B., 2016. Long-lived, stationary magmatism and pulsed porphyry systems during Tethyan subduction to post-collision evolution in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus, Armenia and Nakhitchevan. Gondwanna Research, 37: 465–503.
Murphy, J.B. and Hynes, A.J., 1986. Contrasting secondary mobility of Ti, P, Zr, Nb and Y in two metabasaltic suites in the Appalachians. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 23(8): 1138–1144.
Nabavi, M.H., 1976. An introduction to the Iranian geology. Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, 110 pp. (in Persian)
Nakamura, N., 1974. Determination of REE, Ba, Fe, Mg, Na and K in carbonaceous and ordinary Chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 38(5): 755–773.
Parak, T., 1985. Phosphorus in different type of ore, sulfides in the iron deposits, and the type and origin of ores at Kiruna. Economic Geology, 80(3): 646–665.
Pournik, P., 2002. Economic geology and Au exploration at Sharafabad-Hizehjan area (northwest of Varzaghan). Institute of Earth Science, Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, Iran, 201 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Prokofiev, V.Y., Garofalo, P.S., Bortnikov, N.S., Kovalenker, V.A., Zorina, L.D., Grichuk, D.V. and Selektor, S.L., 2010. Fluid inclusion constraints on the genesis of gold in the Darasun District (Eastern Transbaikalia), Russia. Economic Geology, 105(2): 395–416.
Rezai Aghdam, M., and Sohrabi, G., 2010. Investigation on the geochemistry of alteration and its relationship with the Mo and Cu mineralization in Gharachilar–Gharadareh area (NW Iran). Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 20(77): 130–150. (in Persian)
Roedder, E., 1984. Fluid inclusions. Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy 12, Vancover, 644 pp.
Roedder, E. and Bodnar, R.J., 1980. Geologic pressure determinations from fluid inclusions studies. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 8: 263–301.
Rolland, Y., Cox, S., Boullier, A.M., Pennacchioni, G. and Mancktelow, N., 2003. Rare earth and trace element mobility in mid-crustal shear zones: insights from the Mont Blanc Massif (Western Alps). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 214(1–2): 203–219.
Rollinson, H.G., 1993. Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation and interpretation. Longman Geochemistry Series, London, 352 pp.
Sawkins, F.J., 1972. Sulfide ore deposits in relation to plate tectonics. The Journal of Geology, 80(4): 377–397.
Shepherd, T.J., Rankin, A.H. and Alderton, D.H.M., 1985. A practical guide to fluid inclusion studies. Blackie, Glasgow, 239 pp.
Sillitoe, R.H., 2010. Porphyry copper systems. Economic Geology, 105(1): 3–41.
Simmonds, V. and Moazzen, M., 2015. Re–Os dating of molybdenites from Oligocene Cu–Mo–Au mineralized veins in the Qarachilar area, Qaradagh batholith (northwest Iran): implications for understanding Cenozoic mineralization in South Armenia, Nakhchivan, and Iran. International Geology Review, 57(3): 290–304.
Sohrabi, G., 2003. Investigation on Cu–Mo–Fe mineralization in Ghoolan granitic intrusion, east of Siahrood. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, 148 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Taylor, R.D., Hammarstrom, J.M., Piatak, N.M. and Seal, R.R., 2012. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model. Chapter D of mineral deposit model for resource assessment, United States Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5070–D, 16 pp.
Van Den Kerkhof, A.M. and Hein, U.F., 2001. Fluid inclusion petrography. Lithos, 55(1): 27– 47.
Wang, Q., Wyman, D.A., Xu, J.F, Zhao, Z.H., Jian, P., Xiong, X.L., Bao, Z.W., Li, C.F. and Bai, Z.H., 2006. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous adakitic and shoshonitic igneous rocks in the Luzong area, Anhui province (eastern China): Implications for geodynamics and Cu-Au mineralization. Lithos, 89(3–4): 424–446.
Whitford, D.J., Korsch, M.J., Porritt, P.M. and Craven, S.J., 1988. Rare earth element mobility around the volcanogenic polymetallic massive sulfide deposit at Que River, Tasmania, Australia. Chemical Geology, 68(1–2): 105–119.
Whitney, D.L. and Evans, B.W., 2010. Abbreviations for names of rock-forming minerals. American Mineralogist, 95(1): 185–187.
Wilkinson, J.J., 2001. Fluid inclusions in hydrothermal ore deposits. Lithos, 55(1): 229–272.
Wilson, M., 2007. Igneous petrogenesis. Chapman and Hall, London, 411 pp.
Wood, S.A., 1990a. The aqueous geochemistry of the rare earth elements and Yttrium. 1. Review of available low-temperature data for inorganic complexes and the inorganic REE speciation of natural waters. Chemical Geology, 82: 159–186.
Wood, S.A., 1990b. The aqueous geochemistry of the rare earth elements and Yttrium. 2. Theoretical predictions of speciation in hydrothermal solutions to 350ºC at station water vapor pressure. Chemical Geology, 88(1–2): 99–125.
Zakeri, L., 2013. Investigation on geology, mineralization, alteration, geochemistry and genesis of Gharachilar ore deposit, Shah Jahan batholith (East Azarbaidjan). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, 282 pp.
Zonouzi, R., 2006. Mineralogy and genesis of gold mineralization at Masjed-Daghi area, southeast of Jolfa. M.Sc. Thesis, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, 178 pp. (in Persian with English abstract)
Zvedzov, V.S., Migachev, I.F. and Girfanov, M.M., 1993. Porphyry copper deposits of the CIS and the models of their formation. Ore Geology Reviws, 7(6): 511–549.